Methodology

This resource takes a considered approach to the topic of Blended Learning. It is organized in categories for the diverse needs of readers.  For an organization moving to an e-learning model, it could inform planning, development and funding application rationales.

Note: Read the Tips for Using This Bibliography before starting.

Free access:
http://bib.learnit2teach.ca/

CLB ESL for Adult Literacy Learners (ALL) addresses the needs and abilities of adult ESL Literacy learners. Most government-funded Adult ESL classes in Canada are referenced to the CLB and adult ESL learners are placed on the CLB scale using a CLB‐based assessment instrument. However, when adult ESL learners who lack literacy skills are placed on the scale, they require unique supports as they gain the ability to communicate in an additional language. The purpose of this document is to describe the needs and abilities of adult ESL Literacy learners and to support instructors in meeting their learning needs.” (www.language.ca)

Free access:
http://www.language.ca/product/clb-esl-for-adult-literacy-learners-all-pdf-e/

This 250-page guide is referenced to CLBs (1–3) and has instructions for adapting units and lessons to PBLA. It contains teaching strategies and language goals for English learners. The teacher’s guide and student materials contain background information, lesson plans and learner activities. Skill building (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and language building (grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary) activities are provided. The objective is to assist learners with trauma to see themselves as belonging to the wider community.

Free access:
http://cmascanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/1467063427_01_beyond_trauma_complete_1.pdf

This 235-page book describes CLB as follows: “The Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) standard is a descriptive scale of language ability in English as a Second Language (ESL) written as 12 benchmarks or reference points along a continuum from basic to advanced. The CLB standard reflects the progression of the knowledge and skills that underlie basic, intermediate and advanced ability among adult ESL learners.

The Canadian Language Benchmarks are:

  • a set of descriptive statements about successive levels on the continuum of language ability,
  • a description of communicative competencies and performance tasks through which learners demonstrate application of language knowledge (i.e., competence) and skill (i.e., ability),
  • a national standard for planning curricula for language instruction in a variety of contexts,
  • a framework of reference for learning, teaching, programming and assessing adult ESL in Canada.”

The book takes learners through stages 1 to 3 in listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Free access:
http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/pub/language-benchmarks.pdf

This resource is a validated assessment tool for exit tests that assess learning outcomes of adult ESL learners in intermediate to advanced levels, CLB 5-10.  The tests cover three areas: employment, community and academic. It is available on order for $70.00 (plus HST).

For more information:
http://www.language.ca/product/clb-5-10-exit-assessment-tasks-e/

This is a resource developed by the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. SAM is a validated tool for assessing CLB 1–4. Assessment areas include employment and settlement. There is a $45 cost to order (plus HST).

For further information and information on ordering the document:
http://www.language.ca/product/sam-for-clb-1-4-e/

The CLB Support Kit contains background information for ESL practitioners, with detailed discussions on incorporating grammar, pronunciation and pragmatics into CLB-based programs. There are sections that address using the CLBs in multilevel classes, with special needs learners, and in teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and workplace ESL.

It includes sample program planning tools such as needs assessment, sample rubrics, tracking forms, self-assessment and feedback forms.

References are listed at the end of each section, as well as additional resources developed by the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks, including SAM for CLB 1-4, and the CLB 5-10 Exit Assessment Tasks for community, employment and academic programs.

You need to “Add to Cart” in order to download, which means registering to order.

Free access:
http://www.language.ca/product/clb-support-kit-pdf-e/

The kit also provides exemplars for listening, speaking, reading and writing as a separate document, which can be accessed at:
http://www.language.ca/product/clb-esl-for-adult-literacy-learners-all-pdf-e/

Select Part IV for the exemplars.

“This resource is intended to be used in conjunction with two key documents:

  • the Canadian Language Benchmarks: ESL for Adult Literacy Learners (ALL), which supports instructors working with adult ESL learners who have literacy needs; and
  • the Canadian Language Benchmarks: ESL for Adults, which is the national standard for English as a second language for adult immigrants (including those with literacy needs) living, working and studying in Canada.

The purpose of this Support Kit is to show instructors how the CLB and ALL documents are used for planning and assessing ESL learners with literacy needs in CLB-referenced classrooms.

The Kit includes:

  • Orientations to the CLB: ESL for ALL and the CLB: ESL for Adults documents;
  • Information and examples for planning literacy instruction, including needs;
  • Assessment and goal-setting, module/unit planning and lesson planning;
  • Information and examples on assessing ESL Literacy learners’ progress in a way that is compatible with Portfolio-Based Language Assessment (PBLA);
  • Suggestions for supporting ESL Literacy learners in multi-level literacy classes and mainstream ESL classes;
  • Ideas for using the Continuum of Literacy Skills found in the CLB: ESL for ALL document; and
  • Sample resources for literacy instruction and assessment.” (www.language.ca)

To download you need to “Add to Cart” and register. The PDF will be emailed to you.

Free access:
http://www.language.ca/product/clb-esl-for-adult-literacy-learners-all-pdf-e/

The English Language Learning (ELL) Training Network was developed by CEIIA, Bow Valley College’s Centre for Excellence in Immigrant and Intercultural Advancement. Designed for ELL practitioners, the Network provides information, resources and tools for instructors, a resource finder, PD workshops and webinars, network for professional learning, blog posts and social media links.

Free access:
https://centre.bowvalleycollege.ca/networks/ell-training-network

The Network was developed by CEIIA, Bow Valley College’s Centre for Excellence in Immigrant and Intercultural Advancement. Designed for ESL Literacy practitioners, the Network provides information, resources and tools for instructors, a resource finder, PD workshops and webinars, network for professional learning, blog posts and social media links.

For administrators, there are tools for program development, including a comprehensive program development guide, and a series on innovations in programming.

Free access:
https://centre.bowvalleycollege.ca/networks/esl-literacy-network

This is a 284-page resource for literacy learners. Instructors are welcome to pull from the activities, worksheets, learning strategies and ideas included in the collection. Clear and easy to use. Numeracy is included.

Free access:
http://en.copian.ca/library/learning/handson/handson.pdf

The Keystone Concepts foundational document and Quartz online planning tool together comprise the “Curriculum Guidelines for Ontario Adult Non-Credit Language Training Program.” (Adult FSL can also be accessed through this website.)

Keystone Concepts is a 40-page document containing guiding principles and components of program delivery for ESL in Ontario Adult Non-Credit Language Training programs. It is the foundation for the course planning process that is facilitated by the Quartz interactive online suite of planning tools. The document details eight core principles, and four key components of program planning.

Please note: Currently only those with a schoolboard email can access this site.

Restricted access:
www.quartz.ca

This resource was developed to help instructors/trainers with the language and strategies to help newcomers approach employment opportunities in Canada. You will need to “Add to Cart” in order to download. The PDF will be emailed to you.

Free access:

http://www.language.ca/product/language-for-work-clb-essential-skills-for-trainers-pdf-e/

This is an excellent step-by-step manual for delivering literacy classes. Topics include:

  • Program considerations
  • Classroom strategies
  • ESL Literacy levels (4)
  • Materials
  • Teaching ideas
  • Literature review of ESL Literacy
  • Annotated bibliography
  • Webliography (30% links no longer available)

With the influx of Syrian refugees, many assessed as CLB 0-to-1 or literacy, there is a strong need for program administrators and instructors to have professional development opportunities available to meet these needs. There have not been large numbers of literacy classes available for learners or instructors comfortable with the skill set required.

Free access:
https://centre.bowvalleycollege.ca/tools/learning-life-esl-literacy-handbook

Making It Clear presents concise guidelines for teaching pronunciation to CLB levels. (No activities provided.) It contains a list of recommended resources.

Free access:
https://centre.bowvalleycollege.ca/sites/default/files/Making%20It%20Clear.pdf

This website has four sections explaining the theory behind PBLA and its implementation. Part A provides a rationale, benefits and FAQ. Part B gives classroom planning information and portfolio details. Part C contains administration and implementation information. Part D is called “Emerging Topics.”

Free access:
http://pblaepg.language.ca/toc/

Quartz is an interactive online tool that offers a guided process for designing ESL courses based on learner needs and the Canadian Language Benchmarks. Quartz provides a set of tools and resources for course, unit, lesson plan and assessment creation. (Note: Instructors cannot upload existing units or lesson plans.)

Samples of Unit Names are found by clicking the blue Samples Tab on the right, providing three choices: Community, Work and Study and CLB Levels 1–8.

After selecting a Unit Name, choose a Unit Theme: three tabs are provided: Community, Work and Study. Sample themes can be viewed for each tab and CLB level.

Work has two themes: customer service (no themes offered for CLB1–4) and employment.

Note: Only those with a schoolboard email can access this site.

Restricted access:
https://quartzon.ca

This resource explains the relationship between Essential Skills and the Canadian Language Benchmarks (caveat: CLB 2000 was used). This is an excellent resource for developing tasks based on real-world employment examples. You will need to “Add to Cart” in order to download. The PDF will be emailed to you.

Free access:
http://www.language.ca/product/relating-clb-to-essential-skills-a-comparative-framework-pdf-e/

This website contains a range of resources to aid in delivering instruction to children and adults who have had their formal education interrupted. Includes teaching resources and essential learning indicators for language, literacy and numeracy.

Free access:
http://teachingrefugees.com/

Resources for more intensive intervention:

This is the professional journal of TESL Ontario. It is an online magazine published three times a year. Articles are current, engaging and personal. Topics cover a broad range of subjects, including academic research.

Free access:

http://contact.teslontario.org/

In order to view TESL Ontario Webinars you need to be a TESL member and a member of a TESL group on Tutela. There are a wide variety of webinars available, both current and archived. Webinars count as TESL professional development. Must register with Tutela then search webinars.

Webinars can be accessed at:
http://www.tutela.ca/

Select TESL Ontario in “Groups” to access webinars past and present.

There are eight collections on Tutela relating to PBLA. While not all have been reviewed, it is an excellent starting point for developing CLB levels one to eight rubrics.

Free to join. Free access nationally. Must register then search Tutela Collections.

Register at:
https://tutela.ca/

There are currently 100 webinars (some repeats) available for access on this site. The topics are varied and cover many aspects, including literacy, classroom management and PBLA.

Online, free for members. And membership is free. When completed, many posts are kept in the archives. Some webinars are located within a membership group and one needs to be a member to join or view. Most webinars can be used for TESL Ontario professional development requirements.

Free to join. Free access nationally. Must register then search Tutela Webinars.

Register at:
https://tutela.ca/

This resource offers two sections that instructors might find useful: Mature Workers and Non-Regulated Skilled and Semi-Skilled Occupations.

Free access:
http://www.language.ca/index.cfm?Voir=media&Id=16873&Repertoire_No=2137991327